Posted on January 26, 2014


  According to Huffpost Celebrity (“Phobias,” 2013), Aretha Franklin, Jennifer Aniston, and Travis Barker are all afraid to fly.  Each became fearful of flying after experiencing a traumatic flying experience.  Franklin has not flown since 1982 when she flew in a small plane that experienced tremendous turbulence.  Aniston has become fearful and anxious when flying … Continue reading

Classical and Operant Conditioning

  Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning is a learned automatic conditioning process which occurs when two stimuli are paired creating an association between the two.  One stimuli is neutral/unrelated (conditioned stimulus), whereas the other stimulus (unconditioned stimulus) produces a known response.  Further, the neutral stimulus is presented first or coincides with the presentation of the second.  … Continue reading

Methods to Extinguish Classically Conditioned Fear Responses

  Classical conditional is most often referenced with regard to Pavlov’s experiments with animals learned responses to unconditioned stimuli.  All things being equal, pairing of two stimuli creates an associated response to both.  For instance, a neutral stimulus is presented which creates neither a positive nor negative reaction on behalf of the participant.  Subsequently, a … Continue reading

Apply It: Chris Benoit

  In 1999, my husband and I shared a passion for soap operas.  My soap operas were the traditional type such as One Life to Live and All My Children, but my husband equated his favorite television show with soap operas: wrestling.  Although I eventually moved on from my soap operas, my husband has remained … Continue reading


  Biology influences each person’s experiences from the moment of birth.  Girls and boys are treated differently simply based on their gender as evidenced in the language used when speaking to infants, clothing, and toys.  In my family, my sister was blessed with two girls and I was blessed with two boys.  When shopping for … Continue reading


  This week’s resources indicate temperament is composed of four interrelated dimensions: activity, emotionality, sociability, and aggressive/impulsivity (Friedman & Schustack, 2012).  Accordingly, various theorists posit models relating to nervous-system temperament and the possibilities of obtaining empirical biological evidence for same.  For instance, Eysenck posited the levels of brain arousal as cued by the central nervous … Continue reading

Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages of Development

  In sharp contrast to Freud’s supposition that identity is fixed during childhood, Erikson theorized that identity formation continues throughout our lifetime emphasizing significant changes to an individual’s sense of self as they experience major developmental milestones (Friedman & Schustack, 2012).  Erikson believed a healthy personality would result from successful negotiation of eight specific developmental … Continue reading


Jung’s theories were similar, albeit different then Freud’s theories.  For instance, Jung theorized our psyche is a composite of a consciously aware ego, personal unconscious, and collective unconscious (Friedman & Schustack, 2012, p. 109).  Similar to Freud, the ego represents our conscious sense of self.  Distinctly different from Freud, however, Jung believed our personal unconscious … Continue reading

Apply It: Psychoanalytic Concepts

  The dream was similar to the others.  This time familiar characters from a popular television show were the couple in the dream with a child.  As always the couple is happy, enchanted with their child.  At some point, the child is taken from them, through either illness or theft.  The remainder of the dream … Continue reading

Psychosexual Stages

Psychosexual Stages One of Freud’s major contributions to psychology was stage theory.  At the time, Freud’s approach was unique and insightful.  As a result, many other theorists have utilized stage theories to explain a variety of phenomena.  However, one of the most influential and significant was Freud’s psychosexual development stages: oral, anal, phallic, latent, and … Continue reading