What effect does the use of video in these online courses have on your learning? In what ways has the use of video enhanced or supported your learning?
Throughout the program there have been many videos made available for viewing; however, the most useful videos have been in this course. Many of the videos in the other classes were redundant to material more adequately covered in other materials and/or research. Further, these videos always had corresponding scripts available for printing. On most occasions, I preferred to read the scripts, rather than watch the videos.
This course has been different in this regard. First, there were no scripts made available inherently forcing me to watch the videos. The videos were helpful and although Dr. Mayer’s videos covered information found in other sources, it seemed easier to understand through viewing the video (Laureate Education, Inc., n.d.). My biggest issue was my old school mentality of trying to take notes. Second, there have been numerous videos made available to learn the software being utilized in this course. The Lynda.com tutorials are absolutely wonderful (Lynda.com). The utilization of video for this particular type of learning captures one of the fundamental benefits of using multimedia in education. To wit, being able to demonstrate how to do something effectively when words alone would be woefully inadequate.
Do you agree with authors Hartsell and Yuen’s assertion that video is a practical tool for meeting the needs of both the students and the corporation or institution offering the instruction?
As is readily apparent from my response to the first question, ,I would have to agree with the authors Hartsell and Yuen in that video is a practical tool for meeting the needs of both students and organization providing instruction and/or training. This conclusion is the result of basic cost versus benefit. There are so many benefits to the learner including, but not limited to, increased and improved processing of complex information, increased and improved visual appeal, ability to capture culture aspects of information, increased motivation, and individualized pacing (Hartsell & Yuen, 2006)0. Benefits to both the learner and instructor include helping the students understand difficult concepts, utilizing video as a form of feedback, and flexibility of using video in combination with other types of instruction such as print, communication tools and/or software programs, as exemplified by the Lynda.com tutorials (Hartsell & Yuen, 2006). Last, but not least, the organization benefits in multiple ways, not the least of which is being able to increase the number of learners being reached per instructional program, limited on by technical requirements on the part of the learner. This results in a larger profit margin for the organization, either directly as in the case of students in educational institutions or indirectly as in the case of employees developing better skills and/or proficiency in the workplace, improving the corporate bottom line. For example, the use of streaming video offers an organization options such as providing the learner with instant play, distributing live events, delivering longer forms of ,media, and reaching multiple learners at once (Hartsell & Yuen, 2006).
As an instructional designer, what are important factors to consider when deciding to incorporate video in the learning objects you design?
As is typical with everything in life, there are always important factors to consider and/or guidelines to be followed to ensure appropriate utilization of any medium. Video utilization is no different. There are numerous hardware and software component factors requisite for the development of multimedia (video), playing of said multimedia and viewing of the multimedia. In fact, the authors state, “equipment requirements, technical support, and network infrastructure need to be firmly in place before any quality video streaming projects can occur” (Hartsell & Yuen, 2006, p. 38). For instance, some of the guidelines or suggestions to follow include ensuring the video is developed in the proper format, offered at multiple bandwidths, ensuring adequate access to a streaming media serve, keeping video short (15 minutes or less), reduce or minimized panning and/or zooming and awareness of color and pattern effects in video development (Hartsell & Yuen, 2006).
There are actual guidelines published within different educational systems regarding the use of effective learning objects. For instance, the Southern Regional Education Board requires the following criteria be met:
1. “Content Quality. The content is free of error and presented without bias or omissions that could mislead learners. Claims are supported by evidence or logical argument. Presentations emphasize key points and significant ideas with an appropriate level of detail. Differences among cultural and ethnic groups are represented in a balanced and sensitive manner.
2. Learning Goal Alignment. Learning goals are declared, either within content accessed by the learner or in available metadata. The learning goals are appropriate for the intended learners. The learning activities, content and assessments provided by the object align with the declared goals. The learning object is sufficient in and of itself to enable teachers and learners to achieve the teaching and learning goals.
3. Feedback and Adaptation. The learning object has the ability: (a) to tailor instructional messages or activities according to the specific needs or characteristics of the learner; or (b) to simulate or construct phenomena under study in response to differential input from the learner. Information about the learner is used to determine how the learning object is developed and shared.
4. Motivation. The learning object is motivating. Its content is relevant to the interests of the intended learners. The object offers choice, true-to-life learning activities, multimedia, interactivity, humor, drama or game-like challenges. It provides realistic expectations and criteria for success. Feedback compares learner performance to the criteria, illustrates the results of the performance and explains how the performance can be improved. Learners are likely to report an increased interest in the topic after working with the learning object.
5. Presentation Design. The structure and interactive design enable the user to learn efficiently. The presentations minimize visual search. Text is legible. Graphs and charts are labeled and free of clutter. Animated or video-recorded events are described by audio narration. Meaningful headings signal the content of text passages. Writing is clear, concise and free of errors. Color, music, and decorative features are aesthetically pleasing and do not interfere with learning goals.
6. Interaction Usability. The user interface design implicitly informs learners how to interact with the object, or there are clear instructions guiding use. Navigation through the object is easy, intuitive and free from excessive delay. The behavior of the user interface is consistent and predictable.
7. Accessibility. The learning object provides a high degree of accommodation for learners with sensory and/or motor disabilities and can be accessed through assistive devices. It follows the “IMS Guidelines for Accessible Learning Applications” and conforms to “W3C Web Content Accessibility Guidelines.”
8. Reusability. The learning object is a stand-alone resource that can be readily transferred to different courses, learning designs and contexts without modification. It operates effectively with a broad range of learners by adapting content or providing additional content such as glossaries and summaries of prerequisite concepts.
9. Standards Compliance. The learning object adheres to all relevant international standards and specifications. These include the IEEE Learning Object Metadata standards and technical guidelines developed by IMS, IEEE, SCORM and W3C (accessibility guidelines not included). Sufficient standard metadata are provided in tagged code within the object and presented in a page available to users”. (Southern Regional Education Board, 2005, p. 3-4)
Hartsell, T., & Yuen, S. (2006). Video streaming in online learning. AACE Journal, 14(1), 31-43. Retrieved from Retrieved from EBSCOhost
Laureate Education, Inc. (Producer). (n.d.). Triarchic model of cognitive load, part 3 . Available from http://sylvan.live.ecollege.com.
Southern Regional Education Board. (2005). Principles of effective learning objects. Retrieved from http://publications.sreb.org/2005/05T03-PrinciplesEffectiveLO.pdf