[The text was extremely user-friendly, straight-forward and clear. I am presenting the information in a format that is useful for connecting and organizing the elements for recall.]
Task analysis is defined as a “collection of procedures for defining the content of an instructional unit” (Morrison, Ross, Kalman, & Kemp, 2011, p. 78)
Three techniques are utilized:
1. Topic Analysis – well suited for defining cognitive knowledge. Defines the facts, concepts, principles, and rules that will make up the final instruction (Morrison et al., 2011, p. 79)
Includes the following steps:
• Review the analysis, and identify the different content structures (facts, concepts, principles, interpersonal skills, and attitudes).
• Group related facts, concepts, principles, interpersonal skills, and attitudes.
• Arrange the various components into a logical, sequential order.
• Prepare the final outline to represent your task analysis” (Morrison et al., 2011, p. 82)
2. Procedural Analysis – used for psychomotor tasks, job tasks, or cognitive sequences involving a series of steps (Morrison et al., 2011, p. 79); Observable and unobservable
Each step of analysis includes three questions:
• What does the learner do?
• What does the learner need to know to do this step?
• What cues (tactile, smell, visual, etc.) inform the learner that there is a problem, the step is done, or a different step is needed (p. Morrison et al., 2011, 84)
Cognitive task analysis – identifies those covert cognitive operations associated with the overt behaviors we can easily observe. The authors state that this analysis is “beyond the scope of the book,” but suggested a “talk-aloud protocol” to enhance the procedural analysis. The talk-aloud protocol consists of asking the SME to “verbally describe each action and step as it is performed.” (Morrison et al., 2011, p. 88)
Critical Incident Interview is based on three types of information:
• What were the conditions before, during and after the incident?
• What did you do?
• How did this incident help you reach or prevent you from reaching your goal?
Primhoff suggested two questions:
• Ask the SME to identify 3 instances when he/she was successful doing the task;
• Ask the SME to identify 3 instances when he/she was not successful doing the task (Morrison et al., 2011, p. 91)
Morrison, G. R., Ross, S. M., Kalman, H. K., & Kemp, J. E. (2011). Task analysis. In Designing effective instruction (6th ed.) (pp. 76-105). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Date Modified: 21 Jan 11 2:36 PM MST